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Full text of "The science of Boxing, also rules and articles on training, generalship in the ring and kindred subjects"

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KENSINGTON, PA 15068 


/ANIa 
LIBRARIES 


Presented by The Trustees of 
The Roy A. Hunt Foundation 
from the library of 
Mr. and Mrs. Roy Arthur Hunt 

1972 


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J 


EXPERT OPINIONS. 


Advance sheets of this book were submit- 
ted to several pugilists of world-wide repu- 
tation, and to some eminent judges of scientific 
boxing. The following are a few of the let* 
ters received by the author: 


From Ro» Fitzsimmons, 

Middleweight Champion of the World. 

I have read carefully the advance sheets of your book, 
14 The Science of Boxing,” and have much pleasure in stat* 
ing that It surpasses all others that I have read, in the thor- 
ough manner in which you have covered the whole ground. 
In your description of positions, blows, guards and the 
movements of the hands and feet, there is evidence of a 
master hand. Every one who aims to become a teacher of 
boxing should make yours his text-book, and the novice in 
the art will find that its instructions will make his path to 
proficiency smooth and easy* 

From Peter Jackson. 

Prof. M. Donovan, 

Dear Sir: I have read the advance sheets of your book 
on boxing. Kindly permit me to compliment you on your 
work, and to say that I endorse your views on scientific 
boxing, and the art of teaching the same. Wishing you 
every success, I am, etc. 


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From J05. B. ClIOVKSKi. 

I have perused the advance sheets of your hook on the 
art of self-defence, and find it the most finished work on 
scientific boxing that I have ever read* I would recoin- 
mend it to all those desirous of obtaining such knowledge. 
Wishing you success, f am, etc. 

From Chas. E. (Parsonj Davis. 

I have read the advance sheets of your forthcoming vol- 
ume with much benefit and pleasure. 1 congratulate you 
upon the meritorious character of your work, and can 
cheerfully commend the same to all those interested in the 
manly and health-supplying exercise of scientific boxing. 

From Billy Maiu>en, 

1 have just finished reading the advance sheets of your 
book, ** The Science of Boxing/ 1 It has pleased me very 
much; your rules are so simple that they can be remem 
bered easily. The mao who wants to learn to box should 
study your book. 

I am sure it will soon become the standard for teaching 
the art. 

Every man who is preparing for a fight, should follow 
your rules on training. 

While reading your article upon that subject, t was re- 
minded of the old days in i8So, when I trained you at Far 
Rockaway to fight George Rourke, and you used a rubber 
football to punch for exercise. Your invention has been 
improved upon, but very few boxers know that they are 
indebted to Mike Donovan for that splendid aid to boxing, 

I wish your book the complete success which it de- 
serves. 


From Pat. Kenrtck, 

Professor of Boxing, New Orleans. 

My Dear Mike: 

I have examined carefully the advance sheets of your 
book, and I tell you frankly it is the best and greatest book 
on boxing that ever left a publisher's hands, in so far as 
information and accuracy is concerned* The various de- 
scriptions of the blows, guards and feints read very familiar 
to an old veteran like myself; but the descriptions are 
written so distinctly and plainly that the student will have 


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no difficulty in getting right at Lhe bottom of each in a very 
short lime- 

It is not only a silent instructor for the ambitious pupil* 
but an absolute necessity for the majority of our boxing 
instructors, who do not know half the things taught in this 
book. 

I am satisfied that it will immediately become the stand- 
ard authority upon the science of boxing. 


From George Siler, 

Sporting editor Chicago Gl&bt. 

The advance sheets of your book, M The Science of box- 
ing/" have come to hand. 

I say, without any reserve, it is the best book ever pub- 
lished on the science of the manly art. 

The descriptions of blows, guards, feints, ducks, are 
complete, accurate, and yet so briet as to be easily remem- 
bered. 

You have not omitted a single detail in regard to posi- 
tions and movements of the hands, feet and head, in box- 
ing. and yet the description of each can be readily grasped 
by a novice in the art, 

I am sure it will be welcomed by those who are just be- 
ginning the study of the art, and appreciated by all who 
have practiced boxing Jor years, whether in the profes- 
sional or amateur ranks* 




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I'KSJi- MlUiAkL J. Pi.WlrfN 




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THE 


SCIENCE OF BOXING 


ALSO 

RULES AND ARTICLES ON TRAINING 
GENERALSHIP IN THE RING 
AND KINDRED SUBJECTS 


BY 

PROF. MIKE DONOVAN 

tj-MiddJe- Weight Champion of America, and instructor of 
Boxing, M, V, Athletic Club 


I 


NEW YORK 

DICK & FITZGERALD 
iS ANN STREET 


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Copyright,, I&93* 
MICHAEL J. DONOVAN. 

{A it rights reserved , ) 

£ v/ " - ■ 

. Ob ij 


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EDITOR’S PREFACE. 


Many books have been published on boxing, 
but the majority show signs of hasty prepara- 
tion and a lack of definiteness in detail. The 
author of the present work has given much 
time and close study to its preparation. The 
rules laid down for each blow* guard and parry 
have been thoroughly practiced to secure, as 
far as possible, the closest accuracy in the de- 
scription of each movement 

Of the author's ability as a teacher of box- 
ing, his successful work as instructor of the 
New York Athletic Club for eight years, added 
to his brilliant career tn the ring, has made 
him the foremost authority upon* and the best 
exponent of, the art in America. 

When the men who are now fighting for 
fifty-thousand- dollar purses were hanging 
around their mothers’ apron strings, Mike Don- 

5 


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6 


EDITOR'S PREFACE. 


ovan was fighting hard battles with bare fists 
and gloves, and a match for $500 was consid- 
ered "big money/' 

Twenty-five years ago prize-fighting was a 
tabooed sport. Except the sporting papers, 
the press never referred to the prize-ring but 
to condemn it. 

Mike Donovan's weight was from 145 to 150, 
and in the majority of his fights he gave weight 
to his opponents, varying from ten to fifty 
pounds. Pie has boxed with the majority of 
the good men of the past quarter of a century, 
more than holding his own with the best of 
them, and is still a well-preserved, active man. 

In 1878, when in California, he issued a stand- 
ing challenge to any middle-weight man hi 
America or the world, The challenge was not 
accepted, but his many friends on the Pacific 
Coast presented him with a handsome and ap- 
propriate belt, as a recognition of his holding 
the undisputed middle-weight championship 
of America, 

J + Sanderson, Editor. 


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CONTENTS 


MG* 

The Author’s Record 9-16 

Introduction , 19-21 

Positions * * * , . . P * * 21-23 

Taking Distance 23-24 

Feinting * , 24-25 

Blows and Guards 25-44 

Straight left-hand blow for the head . . . . . 25 

Guard for straight left-hand blow for the head . 26 

Right-hand cross-counter for Ibe head ... * 27 

How to guard or evade a right-hand cross-counter 

for the head , < . , ^8 

Left-hand counter for the head, with guard ♦ . . 29 

Straight left-hand counter for the head, with duck 
to the right 30 

How to stop or evade a straight counter for the 
h ead 31 

Left-hand lead for the body , 31 

Guards for the left-hand lead for the body . * . 32 

Right-hand body blow 34 

Guard for right-hand body blow 35 

Cross-guard blow * . . . * 35 

Guard for the above blow 36 

Swinging left-hand blow for the head , . , . . 36 

Guard for swinging left-hand blow for the head „ 37 

Swinging right-hand blow for the head .... 38 

Guard for right-hand swinging blow for the head . 39 


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CONTENTS 


viii 

pac a 

Swinging left-hand blow for the body , . , . . 40 

Guard lor the swinging left-band blow lor the body 40 


Guard No. 2 for the same blow 

Stop for the same blow 41 


Swinging left-hand blow for the head, stepping 


forward with the right foot * . , , . „ * 41 

Guard for the above blow , * 43 

Left-hand upper cut 43 

Guard for Left-hand upper cut » . . 4 * » . 43 

Right-hand uppercut v. 44 

To stop a left or guard a right hand upper cut . 44 

The Pivot Blow ......... . , . , 45 

Right hand Boxing , , ,,,40 

How to guard the blows of a right-hand man , * 48 

Infighting - * . . * 48 

Stops 4 i 1 50 

Ducking and Clinching . , 51 


Ducking and Clinching when your Opponent Leads 
with Right Hand for your Face , . * . . 52 

Side-stepping or Ducking to the Left . ... 52 
How to Box a Man Taller than Yourself , ♦ 53 


Gineralshif . . * , - * . 55 

A Suggestion * . * . . - * ?f 

How to Judge a Fight .......... 5^ 

How to Train for a Fight .bo 

Appendix 71 


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THE AUTHOR’S RECORD, 


Mike Donovan began his career in the 
prize-ring when he was eighteen years old. 
His first sight of a prize-ring was at St. Louis 
in July, 1 866, when he stepped into one to fight 
Billy Crowley with bare knuckles, They 
fought ninety-two rounds in 3 hours 15 min- 
utes. Donovan lost on a foul. This can be 
readily explained by the fact that he knew 
very little about prize-ring rules, and less about 
scientific boxing. 

Soon after his first fight he was taken in hand 
by Fat Ken rick, an accomplished boxer, who 
now resides in New Orleans, who taught him 
the elements of boxing. 

In July of the same year he ’beat Mike Con- 
roy at St. Louis in sixty-two rounds, 2 hours 
9 minutes, prize-ring rules. 



IO THE AUTHOR'S RECORD. 

The same year at Canterbury I lall, St. Louis, 
■with gloves, beat Patsy Curtin in five rounds- 

At Memphis, Term,, in the same year, beat 
Jim Conroy, 175 pounds, with bare knuckles. 

In a room at Chicago, in 1867, beat Pat 
McDermott, 185 pounds, 5 feet 1 1 % inches, in 
four rounds with gloves. 

The same year and place in a room, with 
bare knuckles, beat Dan Carr, 160 pounds, in 
one round. 

In 1868 at Grand Haven, Mich,, with bare 
knuckles, beat Pat Kelly, 175 pounds, 5 feet 
io )4 inches, in seven rounds, 14 minutes. 

In January, 1869, near Indianapolis, Ind., 
with bare knuckles, beat John Boyne, in twenty- 
three rounds, 33 minutes. 

At this time a purse of $500 was considered 
** enough " for the best men of the day to fight 
for, and Mike Donovan grew weary of the 
small profits made in winning ring contests, 
and from 1869 until 1872 worked at his trade of 
ship-caulker. But in 1872 he left his native 
city, Chicago, for New York, when the old 
fever broke out on him again. 

He began his Eastern career at Harry Hill s 


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THE AUTHOR S RECORD* 


II 


on Houston Street, where he beat Jack Curtin, 
with gloves, in two rounds, and very shortly 
afterward a man named Jordan in three rounds, 
also with gloves. 

At the same place he beat Teddy Neary in 
three rounds* 

In a room he beat Jack Lawrence (not Law- 
rence of Morrissey fame) in two rounds. 

Beat Byron McNeill in a room in New York 
in three rounds* 

In 1873 at Philadelphia, with bare knuckles, 
fought Jim Murray a draw in forty-four rounds, 
1 hour 5 minutes, when the fight was stopped 
by the police, both men being badly punished. 

In 1874 at Philadelphia fought Charley 
Burke, with gloves, four rounds, but w j as de- 
cided against him by two unfair judges, the 
referee being in his favor. 

From 1874 to 1877 he worked at his trade, 
and gave lessons in boxing. 

At Troy, N. Y., in 1877 beat Dick Liston, 
rules of tbe ring, with gloves, in five rounds. 

In April, 1878, lost on a foul to W. C. Mc- 
Clellan, fourteen rounds, 55 minutes, for the 
middle-weight championship pf America. 


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12 


THE AUTHOR^ RECORD* 


In May of the same year beat W. C* McClel- 
lan, special rules, in seven rounds, 17 minutes* 

In August, I §78, went to the Pacific Coast, 
and at Virginia City, Nev., stopped Billy Cos- 
tello in two rounds. 

At San Francisco beat George Crockett, 195 
pounds, in two rounds, 5 minutes 30 seconds. 

At the same place fought W* C. McClellan 
a draw, ninety-six rounds, 3 hours 48 minutes, 
rules of the ring. 

He went to California as an " unknown 11 to 
fight Harry Maynard for $5,000 a side, but 
when John J. Staples, Maynard’s backer, found 
that the 14 unknown was Mike Donovan he 
refused to make the match. Being disappointed 
in his expected match with Maynard, Donovan 
issued a challenge to fight any man on the Pa- 
cific Coast regardless of weight, or any middle- 
weight man in the world, but neither challenge 
found a taker. 

At Sacramento, CaL, he stopped George 
Smith, 190 pounds, 5 feet 10 inches, three 
rounds* Smith had just before challenged 
John J* Dwyer, the champion heavy-weight of 
America, to fight for championship. His bout 


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THE AUTHOR'S RECORD. IJ 

with Donovan effectually squelched his cham- 
pionship aspirations, as his backer withdrew 
his challenge immediately after. 

Upon his return from the Pacific Coast to the 
East, the first man with whom he put up his 
hands was John L. Sullivan, at Boston, in Feb- 
ruary, 1880. They fought four hard rounds, 
honors being even at the end. In this set-to 
Donovan injured his right hand so badly that 
he was unable to enter the ring until the fol- 
lowing October* 

In the month above named he fought Ed. 
McGlenchy a draw in five rounds. They met 
for the second time the following month, when 
Donovan beat him in three rounds. Their 
third trial of skill took place a month later at 
Madison Square Garden, when Donovan again 
beat him in three rounds. 

Mike Donovan met John L. Sullivan for the 
second time at Music Hall, Boston. Of this 
contest the Boston Globe of March 22, iSSr, 
gives the following account : 

“ Mike Donovan of Chicago and John L. Sullivan 
of the Highlands fought in Music Hall last night, the 
latter no doubt being the strongest man in the pro- 


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THE AUTHOR'S RECORD. 


fessjon. A well-directed blow from him has seemingly 
force enough to lay low a full-grown Texan steer, and 
when he gets upon the stage he considers that it is the 
proper caper for him to immediately throw all the 
brutal force in him into his arm and launch it forth at 
his opponent. 

** In this manner he opened the bout with the Chica- 
goan; the latter, who is really a scientific man, coolly 
dodged out of his way, and all through three intense 
and exciting rounds the great burly Highlander was 
unable to plant one well-directed blow on the face of 
his opponent, 

" The latter, however, was more successful, getting in 
some telling face blows. 

“ The affair was not at all satisfactory, the conduct of 
Sullivan being of such a brutal description as to invoke 
the hearty disapproval of the spectators, who gave vent 
to their displeasure by prolonged hissing. 1 ' 

In the same month at Terrace Garden, New 
York, he met George Rourke, At the end of 
the third round the police stopped the bout. 
The public verdict was that Rourke was 
worsted. 

In the fall of the same year met Rourke, for 
the second time, at Madison Square Garden. 
The bout was arranged to be four rounds, 
Quccnsberry rules, but Rourke and the master 
of ceremonies switched off to rules of the ring. 
After three rounds of hard fighting* Rourke 


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THE AUTHOR'S RECORD. IS 

walked off the stage, the public verdict again 
being in Donovan's favor. 

The year prior to this Donovan and Rourke 
were matched to fight to a finish, with bare 
knuckles. The match was to have come off at 
Long Point, Canada, but the Canadian author- 
ities would not allow the ring to be pitched. 

In August, 1882, at the American Institute, 
New York, met Jack Davis of England, 196 
pounds, with gloves; at the end of three rounds 
it was declared a draw, the police taking a 
hand in securing that decision. 

From the latter date until October, 1884, 
Donovan did not enter the ring, but taught 
boxing at his academies — first on University 
Place, and then at Haymarket Hall, on Thir- 
tieth street and Sixth avenue. At his next 
appearance he beat Jack Welsh, 185 pounds, 
5 feet 1 1 inches, at Philadelphia, in four rounds. 

In the same month beat Walter Watson, 180 
pounds, in Turn Verein Half, New York, in 
seven rounds. 

After his fight with Watson he accepted the 
position, which he still fills, of Boxing Instructor 
of the New York Athletic Club, and retired 


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l6 THE AUTHOR'S RECORD. 

permanently from the ring. But twice since 
his present engagement lias he stepped into 
the ring as a competitor. 

In November, i88S, at Wiliiamsburgh, he 
fought a draw with Jack Dempsey; the friends 
of the Nonpareil .during the six rounds were 
kept on edge every moment, fearing that the 
veteran would put out the man who was then 
in the heyday of his fighting career. 

On May 4th, 1891, Donovan met his old foe- 
man, and now friend, W, C. McClellan, for the 
fourth and last time, at the Eighth Street The- 
atre, New York, and beat him in 48 seconds — 
one of the shortest fights on record. 

■ 

J. Sanderson, Editor. 


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THE SCIENCE OF BOXING. 



* 






NOTE. 


Throughout these pages the palm of the 
hand is frequently referred to. These refer- 
ences do not always imply that the hand is 
open. The word is used because it indicates 
better than any other the position of the arm 
when hitting, guarding or parrying a blow. 

The irregularity in the numbering of the 
figures in this book is due to the fact that the 
text was printed before the illustrations were 
completed. It was found that some of the il- 
lustrations referred to in the text were unnec- 
essary and confusing. They were therefore 
omitted and reference to them canceled, 

iB 


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INTRODUCTION. 

The science of boxing is practiced at pres- 
ent by a larger number of men, and of a higher 
class, than ever before. That it is both an en- 
joyable and healthy exercise is the well-defined 
opinion of everyone who has practiced the art. 
In proof of this I may state that during the 
past eight years as instructor of boxing in the 
New York Athletic Club, I have had among 
my pupils gentlemen eminent in science, litera- 
ture, art* and others prominent in social and 
commercial life. The opinions of such men 
are well worthy of consideration, and they 
have uniformly pronounced boxing to be the 
finest and most interesting of indoor exercises. 

Boxing develops the body more uniformly 
than any other exercise. It quickens the sight; 
it gives lightness to the whole person. The 
hands are man's natural means of attack, and 


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THE SCIENCE OF BOXING. 


every boy and man should be taught how to 
use them skillfully, in order that he may be 
able to punish the rowdy or cowardly bully. 
The knowledge of boxing gives a man 
such self-confidence that in the ordinary 
affairs of life he needs no other weapon 
than his hands. The practice of boxing keeps 
a man in such good physical condition that 
he can easily best a man much larger than 
himself, who has not been thus trained. It is 
a well-known fact that the small man who is 
conscious of his ability as a boxer, will show 
more courage when threatened by personal 
attack than the big fellow who always believes 
that his weight will crush the smaller man. 
Small and weak men can be so well trained 
and developed in the science of boxing that 
they can best antagonists much larger than 
themselves, Boys, sixteen years old and up- 
ward, attending schools, academies, colleges 
and universities, should be taught the science 
of boxing. The majority of our universities 
make appropriations for teachers of gymnastics, 
but do nothing for boxing, and students who 
wish to become proficient m the art have to 


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pay for any lessons they may take. This is a 
mistake, for boxing is as desirable a means of 
developing the frame as gymnastics. There 
are plenty of good teachers available — men who 
have retired from the ring, and who, while they 
would teach their pupils skillfully, know well 
how to treat them as gentlemen* 

POSITION, 

The first things to be considered in boxing 
are position and carriage* On them depends 
nearly everything and they should be given the 
most careful attention, A proper use of the feet 
is quite as necessary as the correct use of the 
hands. To hold yourself to the best advan- 
tage you should stand facing your opponent, 
with the left shoulder about eight inches in ad- 
vance of the right; the left foot should be from 
fifteen to twenty inches in advance of the toe 
of the right, the distance being governed by 
the length of the leg, the object being to give 
the firmest possible position to the body. The 
weight of the body should be divided as evenly 
as possible on both feet, making the ball a 
pivot on which the body can be swayed to 



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22 


THE SCIENCE OF BOXING* 


the left or right, forward or backward, with 
* equal ease, with the heel of the right foot 
slightly raised from the floor. The toe of the 
left foot should be pointed directly at your op~ 
ponent, and in a parallel line with the left fore- 
arm, the heel of the right foot directly behind 
the heel of the left, with the toe turned out- 
ward at an angle of about 6$ or 70 degrees. 

The hands should be placed with the left 
upper arm slightly advanced, so that the elbow 
will come about seven inches in front of the 
short ribs ; the forearm and hand should be 
slightly raised from the level of the elbow, with 
the small bones of the arm turned upward. 

The right arm should be thrown across the 
breast, with the hand slightly above the left 
nipple and about three inches from the body, 
with the palm of the hand turned partly down- 
ward, The hand should be kept in this posi* 
tton until you are within striking distance. 

In sparring for an opening the forearms 
should twist a little, as you will then be prepared 
to strike a quick and hard blow. In hitting, the 
hands should be firmly closed, the wrist slightly 
curved, so that the back knuckles will be the 


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THE SCIENCE OF BOXING. 


2 3 


point of contact, that position giving a longer 
reach and a harder blow. The whole body 
should be held with the muscles elastic and the 
joints supple, as any tendency toward rigidity 
will not only tire, but will greatly detract from 
speed and force in leading or countering. The 
head should be held erect, with your eyes on 
those of your opponent. 

TAKING DISTANCE. 

In taking distance and sparring for an open- 
ing you should practice to move either to the 
right or left, forward or backward, with equal 
ease. In moving to the right, if the weight of 
the body is resting on the right foot, step first 
with the left by moving it slightly across the 
right, and then follow it with the right, main- 
taining, as nearly as possible, the position of the 
legs, feet and body (as shown in Fig. i), ex- 
cept that the feet, in moving, will naturally 
come a little nearer together. If the weight 
of the body should be resting on the left foot 
at the time of moving, then step out with the 
right foot first. In moving to the left, the same 
rule is followed, viz.: to step first with the foot 


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24 


THE SCIENCE OF BOXING. 


on which the body is not resting. When you 
are moving around an opponent to obtain an 
opening, it is preferable to move to the left, 
as it brings you into closer range, and can 
be done much more quickly and with greater 
ease. In moving backward, step with the right 
foot first and follow it with the left, coming 
into the position shown in Fig. i, In moving 
forward, step with the left foot first and then 
follow with the right, being careful, however, 
not to overstep. The head and body should be 
slightly backward, as it gives a better and 
safer position. 

FEINTING, 

Feinting is one of the most important ele- 
ments in the science of boxing. Its object is 
to deceive your opponent as to your intentions, 
and draw him out to ascertain his mode of at- 
tack and defence. There are many ways of 
feinting, The best method is by the move- 
ments of the eyes, arms and body, to give the 
strongest possible appearance of being ready 
and eager to strike a blow, without doing so. 
Take a short step forward with the left foot, 


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bend your knee slightly, strike out about half- 
way with the left hand, sway the body forward 
and backward with an easy swinging motion* 
By making these movements rapidly you can 
make a display of being ready to lunge out 
vigorously. These motions should all be made 
with the joints supple and the muscles elastic, 
being careful to preserve the balance of the 
body as nearly as possible on both feet. The 
instant you see that you have deceived your 
opponent, strike for his most unguarded point, 

BLOWS AND GUARDS IN THE ORDER IN WHICH 
THEY SHOULD BE TAKEN UP, 

Straight left-hand blow far the head - 

After judging the reach and quickness of 
your opponent, which can best be done by 
feinting, creep forward with both feet, and 
when an opening presents itself and you think 
you are within hitting distance, step forward 
with the left foot and instantly strike out 
straight from the shoulder with your left hand, 
hitting for your opponent’s face, throwing the 


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26 


THE SCIENCE OF BOXING. 


weight of the whole body into the blow. In 
striking this blow turn your head slightly to 
the right, to avoid your opponent's left-hand 
counter, or right-hand cross-counter. Avoid 
all chopping or striking with a downward mo- 
tion, as such motions shorten your reach and 
lessen the force of your blow. Be careful not 
to get so far forward as to overbalance if you 
should misjudge distance. After delivering the 
blow, spring quickly back into position, guard- 
ing yourself at the same instant. (See Fig. 2.) 

Guard for straight left-hand lead for the head . 

Throw the weight of the body slightly on the 
right foot, pose the head slightly backward, 
meet your opponents wrist with your right 
wrist or strong part of the forearm, with the 
palm of the hand downward and slightly out- 
ward, and throw off his blow strongly to your 
right with an upward and outward motion. 
This has a tendency to throw him off his bal- 
ance and give you a chance to strike back at 
his most unguarded point with either your left 
or right hand. (See Fig. 3.) 


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Right-hand cross-counter for the head \ 

This is delivered by drawing out your oppo- 
nent to lead for your head with his left hand 
by offering him an apparent opening to land a 
blow. At the instant that he leads send but 
your right hand for his jaw or the side of his 
face, at a sufficient angle to pass just outside 
and a little above his left arm, and at the same 
time turn or duck your head to the left, causing 
his blow to pass over your right shoulder. The 
knuckles of the hand must be turned outward. 
With a skillful opponent this blow must be de- 
livered with a slightly circular motion, as he is 
very likely to duck or turn his head when lead- 
ing for you. 

The position of the feet must be governed 
by your opponent’s distance from you in lead- 
ing, If he overreaches, so that you can hit 
him effectively from your original position, 
do so, which depends upon how well you 
can time his lead; if not, then step instantly 
forward with your left foot, and strike out, as 
illustrated in Fig. 4. This blow is a most 
punishing one, as your opponent in making 


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28 


THE SCIENCE OF BOXING, 


his lead is advancing toward you* and the 
power of your blow is nearly doubled by his 
weight as well as your own being thrown 
into it. 

How to guard or evade a right-hand cross- 
counter for the head , 

A cross-counter can be guarded or evaded in 
different ways — either by guarding with the left 
arm, or by ducking the head, or springing back 
out of reach. If, having led with your left 
at your opponent's face, you see that he is too 
quick and likely to cross you, stop your blow, 
if possible, throw the left elbow upward and 
meCt his blow with your elbow or forearm. 
The knuckles of the hand must be turned up- 
ward, as it gives to the arm the strongest posi- 
tion and the greatest power of stopping a heavy 
blow. If, however, your lead has gone be* 
yond the point where you cannot stop it and 
guard as described, you must then duck the 
head by throwing it downward and well to the 
right,- thereby causing the blow to pass over 
your left shoulder, or, at t lie worst, hitting you 


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THE SCIENCE OF BOXING* 


29 


only a glancing blow on the back of the head 
with but slight risk of damage. The safest 
method is, if you can discern your opponent's 
intentions in time, to spring back instantly out 
of reach* (See Figs. 5, 6.) 

* 

Left-hand counter for the head , with guard . 

This is delivered when your opponent lunges 
at you with his left. Hold yourself well to- 
gether* The instant that he does so, strike out 
with your left hand straight from the shoulder 
for his face; drop your chin slightly, and at the 
same time throw your right forearm across 
your face, about six inches from it, and meet 
his blow with the strong part of your forearm 
or wrist, holding the knuckles upward and half 
inward* The upper arm and forearm should 
form nearly a right angle, and should be strong- 
ly braced to stop or break the force of his 
blow* If your blow reaches your opponent s 
face, striking him squarely, it is quite likely to 
jar him, which gives you a chance to follow 
with your right or left for the side of his face 
or jaw. The main object of the straight coun- 


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30 


THE SCIENCE OF liOXING. 


ter is to stop your opponent's rush. The blow 
in itself is effective, but is much less so than 
the following one with the right, if you get a 
chance to land it, and the opportunity to do so 
should be sharply watched for, and when seen 
the blow should be instantly made. The for- 
ward movement with the left foot, the striking 
out with the left hand, and the raising of the 
right arnj to guard, should all be made at the 
same instant, (See Fig, 8.) 

Straight left-hand counter for the head, with 
duck to the right . 

This is delivered in the same way as a straight 
counter with a guard, except that, instead of 
guarding, you avoid the blow and allow it to 
pass over your left shoulder, or glance from 
the side of your head by ducking to the right, 
which is done by throwing the head downward 
and obliquely to the right, with the chin tow- 
ard the right shoulder. This blow has the ad- 
vantage of increasing your reach by the swing 
of the body and throwing the left shoulder fur- 
ther forward. (See Fig, 9.) 


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THE SCIENCE OF BOXING* 


3 * 


How to stop or evade a straight counter for the 
head . 

If you have led for your opponent, and see 
that he is going to counter you, straighten your 
left arm to its fullest extent, meet him as he 
advances and break the force of his blow. An 
attempted counter can be evaded by throwing 
the head and body well backward, resting the 
weight of the body principally on the right 
leg, and as his blow falls short, you may have 
a chance to return with the left for the head 
or body, or you may have an opening for a 
good right-hand body blow. Your trained 
instinct will instantly tell you which of these 
three methods is the best (See Figs. 10, ir*) 

Left-hand lead for the body , 

Feint for your opponent’s head with your 
left hand by half extending and withdrawing it 
rapidly, as if you would hit him in the face 
(looking him keenly in the eye)* to induce him 
to raise his guard; the instant that he does so, 
spring forward with your left foot, either inside 
or outside his left, or toe to toe, being gov- 


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32 


THE SCIENCE. OF BOXING. 


erncd by lus position and distance from you, and 
at the same time strike out your left for the pit 
of the stomach or short ribs, ducking your 
head to the right. Bend your left knee enough 
to bring your left shoulder nearly on a level 
with the point at which you aim, and keep the 
right foot nearly at a right angle with the heel 
of the left; by so doing you will preserve your 
balance. If your opponent is a clever left-hand 
upper-cutter, hit him with a straight arm — that 
is, do not step in any further than is absolutely 
necessary to reach him, and also be careful to 
get the chin well down, in order to receive his 
blow either on the forehead or side of your 
head, if he should counter with you. It is not 
practicable to guard with your right as you 
deliver this blow, as doing so would detract 
greatly from its force and effect. Recover your 
position as quickly as possible. (See Fig. 12.) 


Guards for the left-hand lead for the body , 

1 st. Bring your right arm down sharply, 
meet your opponent's wrist with your wrist or 


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F’G. 35- Fig. 26. 




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THE SCIENCE OF BOXING. 33 

forearm, and throw his arm strongly to the 
right with a downward and outward motion. 

2d. Throw your left wrist or forearm over 
your opponent’s wrist, with the palm of the 
hand turned half downward, and throw his arm 
sharply to your right with a downward and 
outward motion- This is a most useful guard, 
as it throws your opponent off his balance and 
prevents him from using his right, and at the 
same time gives you an opportunity of using 
your right with effect on either his head or 
body. 

3d. Cross the arms over the pit of the stom- 
ach, holding the elbows close to the body, and 
with the right arm above the left in such a po- 
sition that, should your opponent's supposed 
lead prove merely a feint to strike for your face, 
your right arm can be instantly raised to guard 
the blow. 

Each of these is a good guard, and the one 
which seems the easiest should be used. (See 
Figs. 13, 14, 15.) 


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34 


THE SCIENCE OF BOXING. 


Right-hand body blow * 

Feint your opponent to induce him to lead 
with his left for your head, and the instant that 
he does so, or raises his left guard, step well 
forward to the left and strike out with your 
right for his short ribs. Should you land 
effectively, and be conscious of having hurt 
him, follow instantly with your left, with the 
swing of the whole body, for the pit of his 
stomach* In hitting the right-hand blow be 
careful to duck your head well to the left, to 
evade his left-hand lead. Should he counter 
with his right, you can receive his blow on the 
top of your head, with the muscles of the neck 
firmly braced, which lessens the effect of the 
jar* These blows can be used upon a man 
who is intent upon attacking you and guards 
unskillfully, Should you land both blows 
you wdll probably wind him, and thus have 
an opportunity to recover and change your 
point of attack to his head, hitting fast and 
furiously with each hand, alternately* (See 
Fig. id) 


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THE SCIENCE OF BOXING, 


35 


Guard for the right-hand body blow , 

Turn the body slightly to the right, press 
the left elbow to the side, covering the short 
ribs, taking the blow either on the elbow or on 
the strong part of the forearm. The upper arm 
and forearm should form nearly a right angle, 
with the hand slightly dropped from the level 
of the elbow, or meet the blow with your left 
wrist or forearm, with a strong downward and 
outward motion; or, better still, spring quickly 
out of reach, (See Fig, 17,) 

Cross-guard blow * 

Draw out your opponent by throwing your 
head slightly forward, giving him an apparent 
opening to strike at your head with his left or 
right, and if he does either, step forward in- 
stantly with the left foot, throw the left fore- 
arm across the face about eight inches from it, 
the knuckles turned slightly inward, as this 
position gives you the strongest guard; at the 
same instant strike out with your right for his 
short ribs or pit of his stomach. This blow 


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36 


THE SCIENCE OF BOXING, 


can be used most effectively upon a man who 
is a chopping hitter with his left, or depends 
chiefly upon his right to inflict punishment* 
You can often make a lead of this blow by 
making a strong feint as if you would lead with 
your left, and instead of doing so throw the arm 
across the face and strike with your right for 

his left short ribs. (See Fig. 20.) 

* 

Guard for the above blow , 

If your opponent delivers the cross-parry 
from your left lead for the head, and you can 
discern his intention quick enough, check your 
blow, throw' your left arm across your body, 
and receive the blow on your elbow. If not, 
drop the right hand across the body, with the 
palm pressed close to the short ribs, and re* 
ceive the blow on the back of your hand. (See 
Figs* 22, 23.) 

Swinging left-hand blow for the head \ 

This is a difficult blow, but very effective 
when landed. A constant straight lead en- 
ables your opponent to expect what is coming. 


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Fig, 30. 





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THE SCIENCE OF BOXING. 


37 


Hence the necessity of deceiving him. Feint 
him strongly by the motions of the body, as if 
you would lunge straight for him. Hold your* 
self well together, keeping your left arm well 
back, spring quickly forward with the left foot, 
inside or outside your opponent's left, or toe to 
toe, according to his position and distance from 
you, and as you do, swing your left with a half- 
circular motion and the swing of the whole 
body for the point of his jaw, pivoting on the 
ball of each foot, at the same time ducking 
your head well to the right, to receive his left 
or right hand counter on the side of the head. 
In landing this blow the point of contact 
should be the first knuckle, (See Fig, 24.) 

Guard for swinging left-hand blow for the head . 

Throw the right arm upward and outward, 
about seven-eighths extended, bringing the 
hand nearly in a direct line from a point about 
eight inches above the right eye, and meet the 
blow with the upper arm or elbow. The palm 
of the hand should be downward and half out- 
ward. (See Fig. 2J.) 


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38 


THE SCIENCE OF BOXING. 


Swinging right-hand blow for the head. 

Feint with your left hand, and by a quick 
forward movement of the left foot, as if you 
were going to make a straight left-hand lead for 
his head. If you find that your opponent is dis- 
concerted, instantly spring forward with your 
left foot inside of his left, and the same instant 
swing the right arm, with the weight of the 
whole body, in a half-circle for the point of his 
jaw. 

The arm, as you land the blow, should be 
slightly bent, making the point of contact the 
first knuckle. Of the right foot the toe only 
should rest on the floor, and should be directly 
behind the heel of the left. The heel of the 
right should be raised to nearly a perpendicu- 
lar line with the toe, thus adding to your reach, 
the toe acting as a pivot, enabling you to swing 
the whole weight of the body from the toe up- 
war J into the blow, and at the same time pre- 
serve your balance. 

This blow is a risky one to deliver, as you 
leave yourself open to your opponent’s right- 
hand counter, and also run the chance of in- 


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THE SCIENCE OF BOXING. 


39 


juring your arm on his elbow if he gets up his 
left guard. As a rule it should be left as a 
finishing one, when your opponent is tired and 
too slow to guard it* But, being the most ef- 
fective blow in the art of boxing, it warrants 
the chances of attempting when you feel con* 
fident of landing. (See Fig. 26.) 

Guard for right-hand swinging blow for the 
head * 

Throw the left arm upward and outward, and 
bend the elbow so that the forearm will form an 
oblique angle with the upper arm. Brace the 
arm strongly, and meet the blow with the up* 
per arm or elbow, aiming to do so with the 
latter, in order, if possible, to disable your op- 
ponent's arm by coming in contact with it. 
The safer way is to avoid the right-hand swing- 
ing blow by springing back quickly out of 
reach. This movement has a double advantage 
— -if your opponent depends chiefly upon swing- 
mg right*hand blows, he is liable to miss, over* 
balance and swing half-way round; should he 
do this, it gives you an opening to swing your 
right for his head or body, (See Fig, 27.) 


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40 


THE SCIENCE OF BOXING. 


Swinging left-hand blow for the body . 

Feint your opponents head strongly with 
your left to induce him to throw up his right to 
guard his face, and if he does so, or attempts 
to lead or cross you from your feint, spring well 
forward with your left foot just outside his left, 
or toe to toe, according to his distance from 
you; at the same instant draw the left arm 
well back and swing it with a half-circular 
motion for his right side, ducking your head 
well to the right; and should he cross with his 
right, the blow should pass over your left 
shoulder. Should he attempt a half-round left- 
hand upper cut, he is not likely to do serious 
damage, as your blow landing first lessens the 
force of his, As there is a counter for every 
blow in the science of boxing, the test of skill 
is to land first (See Fig. 29.) 

Guard for the swinging left-hand blow for the 
body . 

Throw the right arm downward and out- 
ward", and meet the blow on the strong part of 
the forearm or elbow. 


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A Foul Pivot, 

{See yage 45*i 



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THE SCIENCE OF BOXING. 41 

f / 

Guard No . 2 for the same blow. 

Throw the right forearm across the body, 
pressing the elbow firmly against the ribs, and 
receive the blow on the elbow. 

Stop for the same blow . 

As he swings, jab your left straight from the 
shoulder to meet him on the side of his face, 
which breaks the force of his blow. (See Figs. 
30 . 3 '. 32 -) 


Swinging left-hand bloiv for the head , stepping 
forward with the right foot , 

Stand well away from your opponent and 
feint him strongly, as if you would lunge for 
him with your right hand; step well in with the 
right foot, within striking distance, and swing 
the left hand for the point of his jaw or neck, 
with the same motion, and in the same man- 
ner as described in the right-hand swinging 
blow for the head, except that you step for- 
ward with the right instead of the left foot. 
The reversing of your position is very likely to 


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42 


THE SCIENCE OF BOXING. 


confuse your opponent. This blow is useful if 
the right hand has been disabled, and is very 
effective, but it is a difficult one, and can only 
be properly delivered after long practice, and 
is, therefore, undesirable for beginners. 

This blow is rarely practiced by boxers, but 
when used with skill has a most demoralizing 
and punishing effect upon an opponent,* 

* I have had practical experience of its value. In 
August, 1879, I fought William C. McClellan, in San Fran- 
cisco, prize-ring rules, In a ring iS x so on a hard board floor, 
with \% oz. gloves. The fight lasted ninety-six rounds; in the 
fourth round he threw me over his shoulder; I fell on my 
right shoulder, and disabled it so badly that it was useless 
during the rest of the fight. In the seventh or eighth round I 
had him penned in his corner; to escape he made a side 
step, and ducked to his right; l reversed my position, shift- 
ing forward the right foot, and as I did so 1 swung my left, 
hitting him on the jaw. and knocking him dean out of the 
ring, He was so badly dazed that it took his seconds one 
minute to get him back in the ring. This in fairness should 
have given me the fight, as the limit between the rounds 
was thirty seconds. As the fight went on 1 got many more 
falls, which made my shoulder so sore and stiff that I was 
unable to swing my hotly to strike a similar blow. The 
consequence was a draw. 

This paragraph is written to give an instance of the 
practical value of this blow k not to disparage MrClellan, for 
he was a good man. He proved his gameness in this in- 
stance by lighting more than sixty rounds, with two of his 
ribs broken. (See Fig. 33.} 


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THE SCIENCE OF BOXING, 


43 


Guard for the above blow, 

The guard for the above blow is the same as 
the guard for the swinging left-hand blow, step- 
ping forward with the left foot, (See Fig. 35.) 

Left-hand upper cut . 

This blow is delivered when your opponent 
strikes for your body with his left hand and 
ducks to his right. Step forward and meet 
him T drop the left hand slightly, draw back the 
a.rm i and hit upward at your opponent’s face. 
In landing the blow the arm should be bent in 
nearly the same position to which you drew it 
back. Make the point of contact on the fore- 
knuckle. By this movement you can hit the 
quickest and hardest blow, (See Fig. 36.) 

Guard for left-hand upper cut , 

Having led for your opponent's body and 
being unable to recover, should be try to 
upper-cut you, throw your right arm well for- 
ward at a right angle with the body, and re- 
ceive blow on the strong part of the forearm, 
(See Fig. 37.) 


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44 


THE SCIENCE OF BOXING* 


■ p 

Right-hand upper cut * 

Watch your opponent’s manner of ducking, 
and if he leads for your head or body, and 
ducks forward on a line with his arm, draw the 
right arm well back, and as you do so swing 
it, in about a quarter-circle, and strike upward 
for his face. The shoulder, body, and hips 
should swing with the arm, putting their whole 
weight into the blow. This makes it virtually 
an upward swinging blow, and as such differs 
from the left-hand upper cut, which is hit with 
a bent arm. You must anticipate your oppon- 
ents duck, and depend on stopping his blow 
by landing yours first* If your opponent 
ducks, as described, you can hit him either 
with the right or left hand. (i?ee Fig. 38.) 

To stop a left or guard a right hand upper cut. 

u * r -r r 

Should your opponent attempt an upper cut 
from your lead, straighten out your left to its 
fid lest extent, swinging your left shoulder well * 
forward, which gives you a longer reach; aim 
for the body, and if it lands but lightly; this is an 


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Fig. 37, 



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T I 1 K SCIENCE OF BOXING. 


45 


effective stop* Should he attempt a right-hand 
upper cut, the same movement with the left 
arm serves as a guard.* 

THE PIVOT BLOW. 

The PIVOT BLOW is struck by standing well 
away from your opponent and feinting as if you 
would lead for him with your [eft; instead of 
doing so, wheel around, making a pivot of the 
ball of the left foot, extending the right arm 
so that the heel of the hand will strike the jaw 
or neck. This blow, when struck in this way, 
is fair. But it has the element of trick- 

iness, and is only practiced by pugilists when 
they are in desperate straits, and indifferent as 
to the risk of fouling* Therefore it is not 
recommended. (See Fig. 42), To guard or 
evade the pivot blow, see Figs, 43, 44. 

* The upper cm, as a rule, can only be effectively deliv- 
ered cm one iv ho ducks forward nearly on a line with his 
arm, which is a dangerous way or ducking; hence, in lead- 
ing, if yon use care to duck downward and well to the 
rifihr T instead of forward, yotir opponent will have great 
difficulty in Landing an effective blow. (See Figs, 39, 40.) 


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4 6 


THE SCIENCE OF BOXING. 


RIGHT-HAND BOXING* 

The man who advances his right foot and 
arm in position is rarely a skillful boxer, be- 
cause his left hand is untrained, and conse- 
quently he cannot use it with precision* 

Upon a boxer of this kind a swinging left- 
hand body blow can be hit with great effect. 
Feint for his head to induce him to raise his 
guard or lead for you. Should he do either, 
duck your head to the right and swing your 
left hand for his right short ribs or kidneys; 
if it lands on the latter spot, the effect is 
much more weakening. This blow can be 
easily followed with the right* straight from 
the shoulder; it should be very effective, as the 
weight of the whole body goes with it. 

You can also make a lead straight with your 
right, as you can well afford to exchange blows, 
because his right-hand blow is but a stab, and 
yours has the swing of the whole body. 

Should he attempt to cross your lead with 
his left, you can guard him easily with your 
right and counter straight with your left* 


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THE SCIENCE OF BOXING. 


4 7 


If he leads for your body, meet hb wrist 
with your right forearm and parry the blow to 
your right, or spring back, crossing the body 
with both arms! the right above the left, and 
receive the blow on the arms. 

In boxing with such a man, if you lead for 
him with your left it should be a swinging blow 
for his jaw, as his right arm is directly in the 
way of your left, and to get over it you must 
swing for him. 

In countering his right-hand lead duck your 
head to the right and swing your left for the 
point of his jaw. 

You can guard his right-hand lead with your 
left, and hit him a cross-parry blow with your 
right either on the face or body- — the latter is 
the better blow. This is a most effective 
blow, as, in leading for you, his whole front is 
exposed to your stronger arm,. 

You can also make a lead of this blow for 
his face or body, and by ducking your head 
well to the left escape either his left or right 
hand counter. 

t> 

After having a few exchanges with your op- 
ponent in this position, change suddenly by 


/ 


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4 s 


THE SCIENCE OF BOXING. 


putting your right foot forward, and as you 
change, strike out instantly with your right for 
his face or body. This is almost sure to dis- 
concert him. Before he recovers from his sur- 
prise shift back to your original position, and 
you will certainly have him demoralized. 
Every man, after a thorough training with 
the left foot first, should practice by changing 
to the right foot. It may come in useful at 
any time. (See Figs. 45, 46, 47, 48, 50, 51, 52.) 


How to guard the blows of a right-hand man. 

When he leads with his right, you can cross- 
guard him with your right in the same way that 
you would guard the lead of a left-hand man. 

By guarding with your left you are more 
likely to get an opening to land a right-hand 
counter. You should guard his left-hand cross 
with your right, (See Fig, 53.) 

INFIGHTING. 

A thorough knowledge of this style of fight- 
ing is invaluable, should you be forced into a 


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Fig- 43- Fig, 43* 






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THE SCIENCE OF BOXING^ 


49 


comer close to a wall or the ropes, and may- 
enable you to turn the tables upon your op- 
ponent just when he appears to liave you at a 
disadvantage. In that position he will gen- 
erally lead with his right; should he do so, 
dash out your left for his face. If you see that 
you have stopped him, instantly follow with 
your right for his jaw. This will very likely 
lead to an exchange of blows; as you strike 
the latter blow the right foot should advance 
slightly, bringing you nearer to the front; 
in this position the increased swing of the 
body enables you to hit nearly as hard with 
your left as with your right. Hit out vigorous- 
ly with both hands, judging your distance so 
that your blows will come from the shoulder 
upon nearly a straight line, these having greater 
force than half-arm blows. If in these ex- 
changes you have the best of it, your opponent 
will either clinch you or break ground. If the 
former, it will be most likely with his left arm 
around your neck, so that he can hit you half- 
arm swinging blows with his right for the head 
or body; instantly drop your chin to your 
breast, so that his blows will land on the side 


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THE SCIENCE OF BOXING, 


so 

of your head. Bend the knees, brace the body 
against his hug, change your attack from his 
head, and hit as rapidly as you can alternately, 
with your right for his short ribs, and left for 
the pit of the stomach. These blows should 
be aimed slightly upward, and the swing of the 
body thrown into each. A few such blows, 
well delivered, should effectually wind him. 

Instantly change the point of attack from 
his body to his head, swinging ha If* arm blows 
alternately, with left and right, for his jaws, 
These blows must be hit with extreme rapidity. 
Under such punishment he is sure to give way. 
As he does so, you can end the bout with a 
blow on the jaw r + 

This is an unusual style of fighting, but 
knowing from personal experience its extreme 
value, I lay particular stress upon its practice 
for contests in the ring, (See Figs. 56, 57, 58, 
59, 60,) 

STOPS, 

Stops are really light counters, and are 
termed stops for the reason that they are used 
to break the force of your opponent's blow by 


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Fig. 44. Fig. 45* 






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THE SCIENCE OF BOXING. $1 

striking with him and landing first They are 
particularly useful to prevent rushes and body 
blows when you are tired or are not ready 
either to guard or to make a strong counter. 

As your opponent leads, strike out with your 
left for his face, with a quick stabbing motion, 
aiming by such quickness to land your blow 
first and break the force of his. The effect of 
your blow comes from its quickness and the 
weight of your opponent's body coming toward 
you, rather than from its power. (See Fig,62.) 

DUCKING AND CLINCHING, 

Should your opponent lead for you with his 
left, before you are prepared to counter, duck 
under his blow, and thrust the point of your 
shoulder under the pit of his left arm, pinning 
his right arm closely to his body. Should he 
strike straight out with his right, the same 
manner of ducking answers, but you must hold 
him tightly around the body with your right 
arm. Should he swing his right, duck well 
under his blow, throwing your right shoulder 
under the pit of his arm, and pin his left arm to 


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52 THE SCIENCE OF BOXING, 

hfs side with your right. It is well to remem- 
ber that it is generally safer to duck to your 
right than to your left In breaking away, 
push him from you with both hands, and spring 
back out of reach. These movements require 
thorough practice to be skillfully executed. 
(See Figs. 64, 65, 66,) 

DUCKING AND CLINCHING WHEN YOUR OP- 
PONENT LEADS WITH RIGHT HAND 

<r *;■ 

FOR YOUR FACE, 

The only difference between these move- 
ments and the ones already described under a 

• + , 

similar heading is, that you throw your right 
arm around the body, instead of your left, hug- 
ging him with both arms to prevent him in- 
fighting you. 

SIDE-STEPPING OR DUCKING TO THE LEFT, 

+ 

If your opponent has forced you near the 

ropes, into a corner, or cJose to a wall, he will 

* * 

most likely make a lunge at you with his right 
for your head; guard his blow, if possible, tak- 


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ing it upon the strong part of the forearm, and 
step well to the left, or duck quickly under his 
blow, stepping well to the left and away from 
him. 

Should there be a greater space to your right 
than to your left, and should he lead off for 
your face with his left, cross-guard him with 
your left on the outside of his left, step instantly 
to the right, with whichever foot is the easier 
at the instant -(See Figs. 69, 70.) 

HOW TO BOX A MAN TALLER THAN YOURSELF, 

Every one who practices the art of boxing 
may meet a man much taller than himself, and 
when he doefe so for the first time he is at a 
great disadvantage. 

When two men — one five feet eight inches 
high and the other six feet — meet in a ring, 
both being equally strong and clever, the 
shorter man is “ not in it." 

In carrying out the duties of my position, I 
have very frequently to box with men from 
four to six inches taller than myself, and who 
are often very skillful. 


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THE SCIENCE OF BOXING. 


Under the present heading I think I cannot 
do better than give the beginner my usual 
method of boxing with such men. In sparring 
for an opening I change the pose of my body t 
throwing it well backward, keeping my head 
erect; I creep forward with my left foot as near 
to his left as possible, consequently spreading 

my legs a trifle more than usual, draw my left 

+ 

arm back, keeping the elbow close to the body, 
and not extending it beyond, so as to deceive 
my opponent as to my length of reach, and use 
every effort to make him lead. Should he lead 
for my head I spring forward, shooting out my 
left hand, swinging my body to the right, until 
it is almost in a line with my right shoulder, so 
as to reach him effectively, the same instant 
ducking my head well to the right to evade his 
right or left hand counter, 1 find the greatest 
demand for skill in boxing a tall man is in duck- 
ing the head. Whenever I land effectively 
with the left I follow instantly with my right 
for his face or body. In leading for such men 
I practice to deceive them with my eyes by 
looking down from the head to the line of the 
belt, as though I intended to hit him there, I 


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find this often disconcerts them, causing them 
to lower their guard* when, instead of hitting 
at the mark looked at* I frequently strike a 
swinging left-hand blow for the head with great 
effect. As a general rule, I find the surest way 
to best very tall men is to be aggressive, to 
keep close to them, using my head skillfully to 
escape their blows, and by a rapid- use of both 
hands keeping them on the defensive as much 
as possible. 

GENERALSHIP. 

To fight successfully the pugilist must follow 
a plan, the first and most important part of 
which should be to find out the weak points of 
his opponent. The manner of doing so must 
be left to the trained intelligence of the boxer. 

There is endless scope for acting in the ring. 
Always maintain a bold, determined front' 
never allow a sign of pain or weariness to 
appear in either face or action. 

A SUGGESTION. 

The foregoing instructions in the science of 
boxing are complete enough to teach you the 


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56 THE SCIENCE OF BONING. 

theory of the art. Your plan now is to get 
the practical knowledge by securing the ser- 
vices of a thorough teacher. Should that be 
impossible, your next best plan is to invite a 
friend to join you in studying and practicing 
the blows, guards and parries described and 
illustrated in these pages, and by this means 
you may become a good average boxer. 

HOW TO JUDGE A FIGHT. 

A sport in which the best men do not win 
can never hold a firm place in popular favor. 
Participants and spectators soon tire of unfair 
contests. The sentiment of justice is deep- 
seated and easily offended. Spectators of a 
boxing contest are quick to rise in protest at a 
decision which looks bad. But they are not 
always right, even when nearly unanimous; 
indeed, those who find fault are much more 
often wrong. 

It is impossible for a referee to please every- 
body; it is hard enough for him to act so that 
his own sense of justice will be satisfied. 

It should be remembered that in a crowd of 


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two or three thousand spectators there are not 
more than one hundred really good judges of 
boxing, and as the majority of spectators are 
at a longdistance from the stage, they cannot 
appreciate the fine points of a boxing match. 

I have frequently sat beside two good judges 
and found one of them side first with myself 
and then with the other. When, on such oc- 
casions, I have found myself in opposition to 
the referee, I have always remembered that he 
was nearer to the boxers, and might have no-* 
ticed something which escaped me* 

In general, however, the points of a good 
boxer should be clearly visible to the trained 
eye, and there should be few mistakes in the 
decisions. 

The points of a good boxer begin to show 
as soon as the preliminary "shake” is over 
and he has put up his hands* His position 
counts for something. Is he well posed > Is 
he equally ready for attack or defence ? Then 
he leads, and you ask yourself, is he a good* 
straight hitter ? If one man hits straight, clean 
blows while the other swings, though they 
land the same number of times I would give 


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58 THE SCIENCE OF BOXING 

the fight to the former, other things being 
equal. 

Watch each man's movements on his feet. 
He who is supple and easy scores point from 
him who is stiff and awkward, for the former 
would have the better chance of tiring his op- 
ponent out in a long contest. Clever feinting is 
a point. Does the boxer betray his intention, 
or does he deceive his opponent ? A blow well 
parried counts something for the defence, for to 
guard well is the sign of skillful boxing. In 
general, the aggressive fighter should get the 
decision over the one who is trying to win by 
his counters. This principle is sometimes car- 
ried too fan There is no skill in wild and aim- 
less leading* It requires long experience to 
enable a referee to decide just how much credit 
should be given for aggressive work. 

It is a fault of some to give too much im- 
portance to a few seconds of rapid fighting* 
This lively work is often allowed to drive the 
rest of the round out of one's mind. As for me, 
suppose one man leads three or four times, and 
hits his opponent without getting a return, and 
then there's a rally, and the other fellow gets a 


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59 


little the better of it, I am disposed to look 
favorably on No. i. He has shown himself a 
good judge of distance, and has timed his op- 
ponent well, and these are exceedingly im- 
portant points. 

A good deal is said about foul fighting* I 
believe in prompt disqualification for inten- 
tional vicious fouling* I don't take very much 
stock in what is called shouldering* It is h aid 
to do any damage that way* 

Butting is a dangerous practice, and should 
disqualify any fighter who does it with malice. 
Another bad foul is the elbow trick. It is 
worked at the breaking of a clinch, sometimes 
with a simple " jab,” or perhaps with a pivot. 
If I saw a man hurt by this trick in a fight, I 
would certainly give him the decision. A good 
referee can tell whether a punch with the el- 
bow is accidental or not* 

The duties of a referee are to explain the 
rules to the competitors. When time is called 
he should take his position outside the ring, 
and he should not enter it until the contest is 
over, when he is required to give his decision. 
The men require all the space there is in a ring. 


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THE SCIENCE OF HONING. 


Under no circumstances should he put his 
hand upon either competitor, his power to dis- 
qualify for foul fighting being absolute* 

HOW TO TRAIN FOR A FIGHT, 

Methods must differ according to the habits 
and constitutions of the men to be trained. 

The man who inclines to make flesh must 
work harder, wear heavier clothes, and undergo 
a more restricted diet than a man whose habit 
is the opposite. 

Before beginning real work, say about three 
days, every man should take mild doses of 
physic to act on the bowels, liver and kidneys, 
to get the whole system purged from impurities 
and ready for sustained active work. 

The best clothes to work in are fine lamb’s 
wool underclothes; they absorb the perspira- 
tion and tend to keep the body free from irri- 
tation* The outer garments, sweaters, coats 
and pants, should fit comfortably, and must be 
varied according to the season of the year and 
the amount of flesh to be taken off. 

When at work seven o'clock is a good hour 


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THE SCIENCE OF HOXTNG, <5l 

to rise ; the trainer should give his man an 
alcohol bath, followed by vigorous hand-rub* 
bing, to get the blood in good circulation. 

Dress leisurely, but before beginning exer- 
cise take the yolk of an egg in a glass of sherry, 
witli a cracker or slice of toast. Should you 
find that the sherry makes you feverish, take, 
instead, a small glass of cold water with the 

egg^ 

Walk, at an easy pace, a mile to a mile and 
a half, frequently expanding the chest by breath- 
ing through the nose to fill your lungs with the 
pure morning air; this will increase their ca- 
pacity and give you a good appetite for break* 
fast. Nothing can equal fresh and pure air as 
an appetizer. 

For breakfast, eat 11 H O ” oatmeal with 

9 

milk, broiled lamb chops, one or two poached 
eggs, with moderately stale bread, or toast 
with a little butter, according to fancy; drink 
tea, not too strong, with a small amount of 
sugar. The meat can be varied by eating a 
broiled steak instead of the chops. After 
breakfast dress to suit the conditions of the 
weather ; walk briskly, between six and seven 


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THE SCIENCE OE HOMING. 


miles, genuine heel and toe (this style develops 
the muscles of the legs more thoroughly than 
the ordinary easy-going gait). Should this 
style of walking fail to promote perspiration 
rapidly enough, vary it by an occasional run 
of fifty to one hundred yards. 

When you return to your quarters strip in n 
room free from draughts; let two men rub you 
gently with soft Turkish towels until dry, then 
with coarser towels, to quicken the circulation 
and harden the skin. 

Take a sponge bath of half a gallon of water 
and two gills of alcohol, followed by massage 
rubbtng of the body and limbs ; this loosens 
and rests the muscles, which is especially 
needed in the legs. 

The following incident will show the benefit 
of massage properly administered : Some two 
weeks before my fight with Dempsey I injured 
my left shoulder so that my left arm was al- 
most useless, Of course I was greatly wor- 
ried. Mr. Edward Rausch er, massage rubber 
of the New York Athletic Club, undertook to 
cure me. He massaged my shoulder, vigor- 
ously rubbing it with Anti-Stiff liniment. After 


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THE SCIENCE OF BOXING* 63 

each treatment I noticed an improvement, and, 
thanks to Mr* Rauscher s efforts, in a week I 
had entirely recovered* 

After your bath make a complete change 
of clothing from head to foot, and you will be 
ready for dinner. This meal should consist oh 
roast beef, cooked to your taste, or roast mut- 
ton, always well done; but little salt should be 
used at the table ; no pepper ; a moderate quan- 
tity of mashed or baked potatoes without sea- 
soiling; spinach is palatable and aids digestion ; 
eat it as often as you choose for dinner, with 
very little salt, as salt creates thirst; drink a 
bottle of Bass's ale, if it does not make you fed 
heavy and disinclined to work* If you desire to 
increase your weight, drink Guinness's stout 
instead of Bass’s ale* Should either have a bad 
effect, drink tea ; carbonic and lime water are 
good to quench thirst and relieve the stomach 
of surplus gases ; rice-pudding with currants 
is a good dessert* 

After dinner take one hour’s rest* 

The afternoon's work can he varied by exer- 
cise in the gymnasium or a walk of three to 
four miles. But the ball should be punched 


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THE SCIENCE OF BOXING. 


for twenty minutes every afternoon, and you 
should also spar with your trainer At the 
close of the day s exercise let your attendants 
rub you down, and put on a change of flannels. 

for supper, eat cold roast beef, Iamb or 
mutton, or broiled chops or steak, according 
to fancy, with bread; if you like currant bread 
and apple- sauce without sugar and well 
strained, or baked apples, either can be taken 
with a cup of tea. 

Spend the time between the supper hour and 

A 

bed-time in strolling gently, reading, or genial 
conversation. 

The man who trains honestly as directed 
should be ready for bed not later than ten 
o'clock, as he needs ten hours' sleep and rest. 
Wholesome rest after a hard day's work makes 
a man fresh the morrow. 

Choose your training quarters in a moun- 
tainous or hilly part of the country, where you 
can be sure of pure air and be free from dust 

It is a good plan to train at a Jong distance 
from centres of business and pleasure, where 
you can be fairly safe from the intrusion and 
interruption of the curious. 


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THE SCIENCE OF BOXING, 65 

Select for your trainer a man thoroughly in- 
formed in his business* one who has been 
through the mill himself; he should have qual- 
ities that will make him a genial companion, 

A good boxer is an indispensable qualifica- 
tion. The prize-fighter who would select a 
trainer unable to box, is like a gentleman en- 
gaging a secretary who cannot write, 

The trainer should have two efficient as- 
sistants to do the rubbing and principal part of 
the walking in company with the man in train- 
ing. 

The trainer will have enough to do if he 
boxes with his man and oversees his daily 
work. 

In sparring with you every day, your trainer 
should take the place of your expected oppon- 
ent, imitate his style of fighting, and if he has 
any peculiar blows practice them constantly, 
your work being to guard or evade these 
blows; practice side-stepping and ducking 
rather than hard hitting, as the latter cannot 
be done without the risk of injuring your hands. 
The prize-fighter cannot give too much care to 
his hands. To harden and strengthen them a 


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THE SCIENCE OF BOXING, 


wash of strong beef-brine can be used morning 
and night, or they can be rubbed with a mix- 
ture of fine varnish and one-third of alcohol, 
twice a day. Your hands may not look very 
nice if rubbed with the varnish mixture, but 
appearances should not count for much in pre- 
paring for a fight, for, should your hands give 
way in the ring, there would not be much 
chance of your defeating a man inferior to 
yourself 

Should the skin of your face chap or crack 
by being exposed to the weather, use a mix- 
ture of one-third each of glycerine, alcohol and 
Florida water whenever it becomes sore, 

The amount of work and kind of diet must 
depend upon whether you wish to reduce or 
retain your weight. In this regard you must 
depend upon the advice of an experienced 
trainer, for men in training often become irri- 
table and unreasonable, and ask for food that 
is injurious. Above all things let common 
sense rule in your training. 

If stale or tired from overwork, rest a day, or 
even two, to recover your vigor and appetite. 

Avoid pastry; it causes indigestion. Many 


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THE SCIENCE OF BOXING, 


6? 


a good man has lost a fight through carelessly 
eating unwholesome food. The greatest dan- 
ger is during the week preceding the fight. To- 
bacco should never be used; smoking parches 
the throat and weakens the whole nervous 
system. 

In taking walking exercise* take the country 
u as the crow flies," over hill and dale, and 
always choose the grass in preference to hard, 
dusty roads, as it gives better work for your 
legs. For running, pick out a level stretch of 
country. 

In this way you can get a pleasant change 
of scene impossible on a beaten road. 

Choose your quarters in a place where you 
can have a small gymnasium fitted up. The 
most important thing is the punching-ball; 
practicing with it quickens the eyes* develops 
the hitting muscles, and makes a man a two- 
handed hitter* The distance from the ceiling 
to the loop on the ball should be three feet. 
The centre of the ball should swing just be- 
low the level of the eyes. Punch it as much 
as possible alternately with left and right; this 
style of hitting is good practice for two-handed 


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THE SCIENCE Ul BOXING. 


infighting, and two hands are always better 
than one* 

By frequently using the bare knuckles on 
the ball, it will harden the hands, and give 
you a greater variety of blows. 

I regard the punching - ball as the most 
valuable mechanical assistant to a fighter in 
training. Sixteen years ago I brought it into 
use; I was then training in Troy to fight Wil- 
liam C. McClellan; I began by using an old- 
fashioned round rubber foot -ball with a can- 
vas cover , for arm exercise, in a room, bound- 
ing it alternately with the right and left hand 
from the floor to the ceiling* when the idea 
came to me of swinging it from the ceiling* In 
company with my old friend and, at that time, 
adviser, Jimmy Killoran, of Troy, I swung it 
from the ceiling, and found it gave me invaluable 
exercise. I used to punch it for hours. It 
made me a two-handed hitter* My first at- 
tempt to make this rig was crude, as I had a 
ten-and-a-half-foot ceiling to swing it from* I 
soon found that a lower ceiling was a great 
improvement as it gave me much quicker work. 

I took the ball to California with me, where 


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69 


It created equal surprise and admiration among 
both pugilists and amateur boxers, foremost 
among whom I may name dear old Joe Win- 
row, my trainer, who also trained Tom Hyer 
for his fight with Yankee Sullivan, Pat Coyle 
(the assistant trainer) s Billy Jordan and Billy 
Riley, and the two leading amateur boxers of 
the Pacific Coast, Charley Bennett and J. B. 
Lewis, 

For variety in exercise the skipping-rope can 
be used moderately; in doing so, use the legs as 
when boxing, stepping forward and backward 
with the left foot in front, or side-stepping to the 
left or right- Lawn tennis is an exciting game, 
and gives splendid exercise for the legs, and 
improves the wind. It is good training for 
the eyes, and will make a pleasant change in 
the afternoon exercises, the movements of the 
legs being very similar to those required in 
boxing. 

These exercises will give you the sort of 
practice you want in your actual work. If 
tired, but not sleepy, just before going to bed 
take a small glass of Bass s ale, as it tends to 
produce sound sleep. 


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70 THE SCIENCE OF BOXING, 

If you are unwell, do not trust to the pre* 
scriptions of your trainer* but immediately seek 
the advice of a first-class physician. 

Six weeks of honest training should make a 
thoroughly sound man fit to fight for his life: 
no other should enter the prize ring. 


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APPENDIX. 


RULES. 

GOVERNING CONTESTS FOR ENDURANCE, 
OR A LIMITED NUMBER OF ROUNDS. 

f. To be a fair stand-up boxing match, in a 24-ft. 
ring, or as near that size as practicable. 

2 . No wrestling or hugging allowed. 

3, The rounds to be of three minutes’ duration* and 
one minute time between rounds. 

4, if either man fall, through weakness or otherwise, 
he must get up unassisted ; ten seconds to be allowed 
him to do so, the other man meanwhile to return to 
his corner, and when the fallen man is on his legs the 
round is to be resumed and continued until the three 
minutes have expired, if one man fails to come to the 
scratch in the ten seconds allowed, it shall be in the 
power of the referee to give his award in favor of the 
other man. 

5. A man hanging on the ropes in a helpless state, 
with his toes off the ground 1 shall be considered down, 

6, No seconds or any other person to be allowed in 
the ring during the rounds, 

7. Should the contest he stopped by any unavoidable 
interference, the referee to name time and place, as 
soon as possible* for finishing the contest; so that the 
match must be won and lost, unless the backers of both 
men agree to draw the stakes. 


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APPENDIX. 


8, The gloves to be fair-sized boxing-gloves of the 
best quality, and new* 

g. Should a glove burst, or come off, it must be re- 
placed to the referee's satisfaction. 

jo. A man on one knee is considered down, and if 
struck is entitled to the stakes. 

i ]. No shoes or boots with sprigs allowed. 

12. The contest in all other respects to be governed 
by the revised rules of the London Prize ring. 


RULES OF THE PRIZE RING. 

1. That the ring shall be made on turf, and shall be 
four-and -twenty feet square, formed of eight stakes and 
ropes, the latter extending in double lines, the upper- 
most line being four feet from the ground, and the 
lower two feet from the ground. That m the centre of 
the ring a mark be formed, to be termed a scratch, 

2. That each man shall be attended to the ring by 
two seconds and a bottle-holder. That the combatants, 
on shaking bands, shall retire until the seconds of each 
have tossed for choice of position, which adjusted, the 
winner shall choose his corner according to the state 
of the wind or sun, and conduct his man thereto: the 
loser taking the opposite diagonal corner* 

3. That each man shall be provided with a handker- 
chief of a color suitable to his own fancy, and that the 
seconds shall entwine these handkerchiefs at the upper 
end of one of the centre stakes. That these handker' 
chiefs shall be called '■ Colors,” and that the winner of 
the battle at its conclusion shall be entitled to their 
possession as the trophy of victory, 

4. The two umpires shall be chosen by the seconds 


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APPENDIX. 


73 


or backers to watch the progress of the battle, and 
take exception to any breach of the rules hereafter 
stated. That a referee shall be chosen by the umpires 
unless otherwise agreed on, to whom all disputes shall 
be referred; and that the decision of this referee, what- 
ever it may be, shall be final and strictly binding on all 
parties, whether as to the matter in dispute or the issue 
of the battle. That the referee shall be provided with 
a watch for the purpose of calling time; the call of that 
referee only to be attended to, and no other person 
whatever shall interfere in calling time. That the 
referee shall withhold all opinion till appealed to by 
the umpires, and that the umpires strictly abide by his 
decision without dispute. 

5, That on the men being stripped it shall be the 
duty of the seconds to examine their drawers, and if 
any objection arises as to insertion of improper sub- 
stances therein they shall appeal to their umpires, who, 
with the concurrence of the referee, shall direct what 
alterations shall be made, 

6, That the spikes in the fighting boots shall be con- 
fined to three in number, which shall not exceed three- 
eighths of an inch from the sole of the boot, and shall 
not be less than one-eighth of an inch broad at the 
point; two to be placed in the broadest part of the sole 
and one in the heel; and that in the event of a man's 
wearing any other spikes, either in the toes or else- 
where, he shall be compelled either to remove them or 
provide other boots properly spiked, the penalty for 
refusal to be a loss of the stakes. 

7, That both men being ready, each shall be con- 
ducted to that side of the scratch next his corner pre- 
viously chosen; and the seconds on the one side, and 
the men on the other, having shaken hands, the for- 


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Al’PENniX. 


mer shall immediately leave the ring, and there remain 
till the round be finished, on no pretence whatever ap- 
proaching their principals during the round, without 
permission from the referee. The penalty to be the 
loss of the battle to the offending parties. 

8, That at the conclusion of the round* when one or 
both of the men shall be down, the seconds shall step 
into the ring and carry' or conduct their principal to 
his corner, there affording him the necessary assistance* 
and that no person whatever be permitted to interfere 
in this duty. 

9, That on the expiration of thirty seconds the ref- 
eree appointed shall cry “Time/' upon which each 
man shall rise from the knee of his second and walk to 
his own side of the scratch unaided; the seconds im- 
mediately leaving the ring. The penalty for either of 
them remaining eight seconds after the call of time to 
be the loss of the battle to his principal ; and that either 
man failing to be at the scratch within eight seconds 
shall be deemed to have lost the battle, 

10, That on no consideration whatever shall any per- 
son, except the seconds or the referee, be permitted to 
enter the ring during the battle, nor till it shall have 
been concluded; and that in the event of such unfair 
practice, or the ropes or stakes being disturbed or re- 
moved, it shall be in the power of the referee to award 
the victory to that man who, in bis honest opinion, 
shall have the best of the contest. 

ri. That the seconds shall not interfere* advise, or 
direct the adversary of their principal, and shall refrain 
from all offensive and irritating expressions, in all re« 
spects conducting themselves with order and decorum* 
and confine themselves to the diligent and careful dis- 
charge of their duties to their principals. 


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APPENDIX. 


75 


12. That in picking up their men, should the seconds 
willfully injure the antagonist of their principal, the 
latter shall be deemed to have forfeited the battle on 
the decision of the referee. 

I3 + That it shall be a fair "stand-up fight/ p and if 
either man shall willfully throw himself down without 
receiving a blow, whether bl&ws shall have previously 
been exchanged or not. he shall be deemed to have lost 
the battle; but that this rule shall not apply to a man 
who in a close slips down from the grasp of his oppon- 
ent to avoid punishment, or from obvious accident or 
weakness. 

14. That butting with the head shall be deemed f6ul, 
and the party resorting to this practice shall be deemed 
to have lost the battle. 

15. That a blow struck when a man is thrown or 
down shall be deemed foul. That a man with one 
knee and one hand on the ground, or with both knees 
on the ground, shall be deemed down ; and a blow given 
in either of those positions shall be considered foul, 
providing always that, when in such position, the man 
so down shall not himself strike or attempt to strike. 

16. That a blow struck below the waistband shall be 
deemed foul, and that, in a close, seizing an antagonist 
below the waist, by the thigh, or otherwise, shall be 
deemed foul, 

17. That all attempts to inflict injury by gouging or 
tearmg the flesh with the lingers or nails, and biting, 
shall be deemed foul. 

rS. That kicking, or deliberately falling on an anta- 
gonist with the knees or otherwise when down, shall be 
deemed foul. 

19. That all bets shall be paid as the battle money, 
after a fight is awarded. 


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PENN ST ^TE 



76 


APPENDIX- 


20. The referee and umpires shall take their positions 
in front of the centre stake, outside the ropes. 

21. That due notice shall be given by the stake* 
holder of the day and place where the battle money is 
to be given up, and that he be exonerated from all re- 
sponsibility upon obeying the direction of the referee; 
that all parties be strictly bound by these rules; and 
that in future all articles of agreement for a contest be 
entered into with a strict and willing adherence to the 
letter and spirit of these rules. 

22. That in the event of magisterial or other inter- 
ference, or in case of darkness coming on, the referee 
[or stakeholder in case no referee has been chosen] 
shall have the power to name the time and place for 
the next meeting, if possible on the same day, or as 
soon after as may be. In naming the second or third 
place the nearest spot shall be selected to the original 
place of fighting where there is a chance of its being 
fought out. 

23. That should the fight not be decided on the day 
alt bets shall be drawn, unless the fight shall be re- 
sumed the same week, between Sunday and Sunday, in 
which case the referees duties shall continue and the 
bets shall stand and be decided by the event. The 
battle money shall remain in the hands of the stake- 
holder until fairly won or lost by a fight, unless a draw 
be mutually agreed upon, or, in case of a postponement, 
one of the principals shall be absent, when the man in 
the ring shall be awarded the stakes, 

24. That any pugilist voluntarily quitting the ring 
previous to the deliberate judgment of tihe referee be- 
ing obtained shall be deemed to have lost the fight. 

25. That on an objection being made by the seconds 
or umpire the men shall retire to their corners, and 


Orminat tram 


< PINH'WE 



APPENDIX* 


77 


there remain until the decision of the appointed au- 
thorities shall be obtained; that if pronounced H> foul," 
the battle shall he at an end; but if " fair," “time" 
shall be called by the [Kitty appointed, and the man 
absent from the scratch in eight seconds after shall be 
deemed to have lost the fight. The decision in all 
cases to be given promptly and irrevocably, for which 
purpose the umpires and the referee should be invari- 
ably close together, 

26. That if a man leaves the ring, either to escape 
punishment or for any other purpose, without the per- 
mission of the referee, unless he is involuntarily forced 
out, shall forfeit the battle. 

27. That the use of hard substances, such as stones* 
or sticks, or of resin in the hand during the battle, 
shall l>e deemed foul, and that on the requisition of the 
seconds of either man the accused shall open his hands 
for the examination of the referee. 

28. That hugging on the ropes shall be deemed foul. 
That a man held by the neck against the stakes, or 
upon or against the ropes, shall be considered down, 
and all interference with him in that position shall be 
foul. T hat if a man in any way makes use of the ropes 
or stakes to aid him in squeezing his adversary, he 
shall be deemed the loser of the battle; and that if a 
man in a close reaches the ground with his knees, his 
adversary shall immediately loose him or lose the battle. 

29. That all glove or room fights be as nearly as pos- 
sible in conformity with the foregoing rules, 

RULES FOR GLOVE FIGHTS, 

t. All bits above the waist to be considered fair, 

2. That no spikes or sprigs be worn in the shoes* ex-* 
cept on turf. 


iricjinal from 

PENN ST ^TE 



78 


APPENDIX. 


3. That both pairs of gloves be alike in every par- 
ticular. 

4* That each man appoints an umpire* and the um- 
pires select a referee, 

5. Wrestling to be barred, unless otherwise agreed 
upon. 

6, Either man failing to come to time within ten 
seconds after the referee shall call time, shall forfeit 
the battle, 

N. B. — With the exception of wrestling being barred 
and one minute being allowed between the rounds, 
glove contests are governed by the regular rules of the 
P, R 


WEIGHTS. 

The author suggests the following scale of weights. 


which are the limits in the classes named. 

Bantam , , . . . , * ,112 

Feather-weight . , * , . , 122 

Light-weight . , , . ,-134 

Welter-weight 146 

Middle-weight , ♦ . « . * ,158 

Heavy-weight, all above • 158 


Original from 

PENN STATE 



BOXING AND WRESTLING 


How to Join a Circus* This contain a all the in formation 

necessary for those who desire to qualify themselves for the Circus of 
Gymnasium ;. with hiuta to Amateurs and advice to Professional pttl*- 
formers; affording thorough instruction in nil branches Of tlte business. 
Illustrated. By the celebrated Tony Denier, By carefully following the 
advice and i net ruction contained in this book, any person with s moder- 
ate degree of perseverance Can become prone lent in all the startling acts 
on the horizontal bar, flying trapeze and other evolutions that challenge 
the admiration of all who behold them. IGA pages . * .35 eta. 

Jerry Thomas' Bar Tender's Guide; or How to Mix all 

kinds Qf Fancy Drink?. An entirely new edtfCen,' new plate*; new drink i. 
Con tai pt ng deursud reliable diroctiona For in iilng all tb* beverages used 
in the United states. Embracing Punches, Juleps. Cobblers, Cuokhils, 
etc., etc., in endless variety. By Jerry Thom an. This work aleo contains 
I be best receipts for preparing bottled Punch, bottled Cocktails, Punch 
E^enren, etc., after t ho most approved method*; *!*<>, ail the ne^e^c 
Egg Hoggs, FlaKca. aiixigft, Sours, and other Fancy Drinks in entile** 

variety. Ifimc, illuminated paper' cover*,, . 00 rts. 

IGmo, cloth,,., ... ,„,.7A eta. 

Dick’s Art of Wrestling, A New Hand-Book of thorough in- 
struction in Wrestling, with the accepted Rules to be observed in the 
different method a of wreath ng generally adopted at Ibe present time. 
Fully illustrated by well. designed engravings, exhibiting Ah the aggres- 
sive slid do fen give positions necessary for success, 35 cts. 

Price’s Science of Self-Defense. Illustrated wiih Engravings. 

This; book was written by Ned Price, the celebrated boxar, and is the best 
work that was ever written upon the subject of Sparring and Wrestling. 
It contains all the trlcki and str^atagamn resorted to by profess tens! boi- 
ery And the descriptions of the pisses, blows and parries are all clearly 
explained hy the aid of numerous diagrams and engravings. That por- 
tion of the work which treats on wrestling is particularly thorough, and Is 
well illustrated with engraving*. Boards ,. 75 ds. 

Ned Donnelly’s Art of Boxing, A thorough Mannnl of Spar- 
ring and Self-Defence, illustrated with Forty Engraving a, showing the 
various Blows, Steps and Guards ; by Ned Donnelly. Professor ot Boxing 
to the London Athletic Club, etc,, etc. This work explain!) in detail 
every move meat of attack and defence In the clearest language, and in 
accordance with the most approved and modern methods; the engrav- 
ings are very distinctly drawn, and show each position and motion ns 
plainly as the personal instruction of a professor could convoy IL It 
tear hex all the feints feud dodges practised by experienced boxers, and 
gives advice to Oicae who desire to perfect themselves in the Wanlv Art. 
Including the London Pri»e Ring Rules, and revised Marquis of Queens 
bury f a Rules. UTjh^bb ,...25ris. 

The Art of Attack and Defence, A Man ual of Fencing, 8 word 

RiervLae, Bayonet Practice and Boxing, affording last rue Hons Jri the 
modern method of Fencing, the mode M Attack with sword against sword 
or bayonet, and with bayonet aguimd sword or bayonet. By Major W. J. 
EUlotL ProfuAely illustrated 35 c4e. 

Boxing Made Easy; or, The Complete Manual of Self- De- 
fense. Clearly explained and III u titrated In* Series of Easy Less qua, with 
Bom® important ^’nta to Wrestlers.. ,.,*** 15 cts. 


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GYMNASTICS, CALISTHENICS AND TRAINING. 


Alexander’s Calisthenics and Musical Drill for Little Chil- 
dren.- Contain tag Fifty -nine Exercises. with .Dumeroue variations, in- 
troducing simple Cal 1*1 hen ica and Swimming Motions* Ring, Skipping 
and Marching Exercises, profusely UhiHtratod, with Plano Mu ale for every 
movement. A complete work on Recreative Cat iHifreolos for young chil- 
dren and Primary tfchcxd Glasses By A, Alexander, Professor of Cfcllw- 
thenicH and Gymnastics. Paper ... , ets. 

Cmden'e Cali sthenic Training and Musical Drill, A Bya- 

tom of Physical Exercisea as an aid to Teachers in Clues Training. By 
George Ci udeii, A. M. 

This work Con tains complete Instructions In Military Marching. Dumb- 
Bell, and Indian Club Exercises; including Musical Drill tn Free GymtuLa- 
tics, Dumb-Bell and Bar-Bell Exorcises and Hoop Drill, with explanatory 
Illustrations and Piano Music for every movement. Boards M> eta. 

Maclaren's Training in Theory and Practice* A Hand* 

book of Training for all athletic exercises Id accordance with tbo ac- 
cepted modern theories and methods. It shows conclusively the errors 
and risks of the old styles of Training, and gives ibe most thorough ways 
of developing in the highest degree tbs muscular vigor, full respiration, 
and physical endurance which is ind is pc rubble to success In all athletic 
exercises and competitive exhibitions of strength, speed and skill, 
Archibald fidsclaren, Professor of Gymnastics of the Oxford University 
Gymnasium, England- Pap Ml cU, 

Dick'* Art of Gymnastics* Containing practical and pro- 

gross i vo exorcises applicable to all the principal apparatus of a well- 
appointed Gymnasium. Brofniwly Illustrated. This work conveys plain 
and thorough instruction in the exercises and evolutions taught by the 
leading Professors of Gymnastics* so that proficiency may be attained, 
even without tbe aid of a Teacher. It also offers to Teachers a ready, 
arranged systematic course for their guidance. Cloth..... HI .Ou. 

Dick’s Dumb-Bell and Indian Club Exercises. Containing 

practical and progressive Instructions In the use of Dumb-Bells, Bar* 
Bells and Indian Clubs. Illustrated with cute showing every position 
and motion oft be body and limbs, Paper., — ... ,,,..30 rt*. 

The Laws of Athletics. How to Preserve and Improve 

Health, Strength and Beauty; and to Correct Personal Defects caused by 
Want of Physical Exercise. H™ to Train for Walking, Running, Bow- 
ing, etc, with the Systems of the Champion Athletes of the World. In- 
eluding the Latest lawn of all Athletic Games and How to Play Them. 
By William Wood, Professor of aymnanBoe. Paper..... .!£A cii. 

Athletic Sports for Boy a- Containing complete instruction a 

in the manly accomplishments of Skating, Swimming, Bowing, Sailing, 
Horsemanship, hiding. Driving, Angling, Fencing and Broadsword* 
111 List rated with 194 wood-cuts. Boards ,,,,.,15 ris, 

Th* Flay-Gronnd ; or, Out- Door Games for Boys. A Book 

of Healthy Recreations for youth, containing over a band rod Am use- 
m t*n Is, including Games of Activity and Speed, Games with Tayfc filar- 
hlhV), Tops, Hoops, Kites. Archery, foils; with Cricket, Croquet and 
Base- Ball, Splendidly illustrated with 121 line wood-cuts. 

Boards W) rt*. 


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6 v//|33 ^ 

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libraries 



JV1133 Donovan, Michael Joseph* 18147-1918 
D65 The science of hoxing; also rules and articles 

on training* generalship in the ring and kindred 
subjects, by Mike Donovan. New York, Dick & 
Fitzgerald Ccl8931 

78p . incl . front * ( port . ) plates * 19cm* 


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